Substance use is as old as human history.
– Production of opium from cocoa leaves and poppy dates back to the Sumerians and Ancient Egyptians.
– It is seen in every geography and every ethnic origin.
These medical elements are addictive as they are misused;
– Spiritual addiction; the individual’s need to feel good
– Physiological dependence; harmony of the body with the presence of the element and the emergence of complaints in the absence of the element
Examples of these elements;
– Anticholinergic drugs
– Opioids (morphine, heroin, codeine, meperidine, methadone)
Hallucinogens (LSD, Phencyclidine (angel dust), ectasia, mescaline)
Stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, caffeine, ephedrine)
Volatiles (benzol, toluene)
A wide variety of mental disorders occur with the use of these elements.
– Deprivation syndrome
– Intoxication (poisoning)
– amnestic disorders
– Psychotic disorders
– Sleeping disorder
– Sexual problems
The use of such elements leads to social, social, family and cultural issues.
It has been found that up to 13% of adults in the USA have abused or addicted to alcohol at some point in their life.
It is significantly higher in men. It is the third biggest health problem in the USA after heart disease and cancer. In the USA, the rate of alcohol and non-tobacco addiction is given as 7.5%. In studies conducted in our country, non-alcohol use was found to be 2.6% in 1500 high school students in 1991, and 7% in a study conducted in 1995 with 2800 high school students. In terms of only cannabis use, the rate of use at least once in the lifetime was 0.7% in 1991, 4% in 1995, and 4.2% in 1996. The risk of developing substance addiction in one year is 1.7% for men and 0.7% for women. It is more common in men than in women, and it is higher in the 18-29 age group than in the older age groups.
It is known that there is a genetic predisposition for both alcohol and other addictions.
The risk of addiction is 3-4 times higher in first-degree relatives of alcoholics compared to non-alcoholics.
The enzyme activities that break down alcohol may be low or high, for example, this enzyme works slowly in the Far East, so they cannot tolerate alcohol.
Prenatal and perinatal risk factors; In mothers who use cocaine and heroin while pregnant, this happens in the future after the baby is born.
It is discussed that these issues may be predisposed to addiction.
It has been determined that behavioral disorders and aggression in childhood contribute to subject addiction. Children with hyperactivity and impulsivity have a high risk of developing substance addiction.
Personality patterns, such as excitement seeking and openness to everything, can also be valuable in children.
School failure is also an issue that increases the risk of substance addiction.
Thrill-seeking, delinquent behaviors, impulsivity and conduct disorders seen in adolescence may predispose to the issue.
Subjects such as emotionality, depressive feeling, self-confidence, and self-contempt also create a predisposition.
Alcoholism or other use by the parents, failure to give proper attention to the children, cause the use of high tension level elements in the child.
it could be.
In adolescence, the pressure of peer groups and the need to belong to a group can open the way to subject addiction.
For adolescents, social costs and norms, the neighborhood and neighborhood where the adolescent lives are important.
Accessibility to the element is also valuable in getting started with the use of the element.
It is known that the use of elements increases in situations of social tension. For example; Opioid use exploded in the United States after the Vietnam War.
It is known that some personality disorders (antisocial, schizotypal) form a basis for the use of elements in adulthood.
Element use may develop after some psychological reasons (depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, etc.).
It is known that some occupational clusters are risk factors. (including musicians, waiters…)
Broken relations in the family, communication problems are valuable, members of broken families
Children develop easier point handling.
Religion and belief factors can be determinants for element use.
Drinking behavior and element use can be learned in social settings. (such as alcohol intake at weddings)
As a result, biogenetic, psychosocial, familial, social and cultural factors are valuable.
Alcohol and other addiction treatment should definitely be done in a hospital setting. During the period of hospitalization, the matter was cleared and then continued.
The patient should be followed up with treatments.