What is Transactional Analysis (TA)?
It is a theory created by Canadian Psychiatrist Eric Berne to understand the structure of man, himself and other people. TA is an approach that can be used for any relational problem. It aims to identify the “me” side of the personality in shyness, aggression, conflict, communication difficulties and couple problems.
The Transactional Analysis Association (ITAA), founded by Eric Berne in 1964, operates in more than 50 countries today. One of the key points of Transactional Analysis is Ego-States.
In Eric Berne’s view, there are three ego states in the human being:
- “Mother-Father” ego state (Parent ego):
It is the attitude that we see and apply from our parents when we give advice, criticize and criticize the people around us. Putting protection and care at the center of her life, she shows compassion when she thinks about the loss. It is based on social values. Messages from the parent ego state make us strong if they do not restrict our communication, do not force us, and are not accusatory.
- “Adult” self-state (Adult ego):
It is a problem-solving mode where reason and logic are at the forefront, feelings are in the background. Adopts autonomous behaviors that are consistent with reality. As the adult ego state of the individual develops, it is the ego state that is most prone to overcome the drawbacks, as it learns to solve the problems around it. In the adult ego state, the point of value develops not depending on age, but on the way the individual evaluates events. The adult ego state is the most suitable ego state for a person to continue his or her life without any problems. Because the person has the self-confidence to make decisions by evaluating the processes, knowledge and possibilities required to cope with the outside world. The individual in the adult ego state does not remain indifferent to the issues around him, and seeks ways of analysis, otherwise, the person remains indifferent to problems without caring about the environment and himself.
- “Child” ego state (Child ego):
It is the state of the self that is weak, submissive from time to time, quickly accepting the pronunciation of the other party, unable to delay its feelings, and sometimes impatient, free and rebellious. He makes creative choices by acting as he feels. It is the now untrained side of personality.
The use of the three ego states listed at reasonable intervals in daily life, at the right place and time, is as healthy as it is normal.
What is a transaction?
The word “trans” means mutual, the word “action” means movement, and “transaction” means mutual interaction and connection. In Transactional Analysis, “transaction” is used as a liaison unit and responding to something you say to the person is a transaction. According to the 3 ideologies it has,
-People are okay.
Everyone has the capacity to think.
Everyone decides for himself what will happen in his life.
In this case, the person determines how he will be affected by the situation he will be in, and decides how he will continue his life with his behavior. As an adult, we must accept responsibility wherever our decision takes us.
For example, the crying of a child who has lost his toy, a businessman blushing with anger as a result of failure in business life, and the feelings and ideas of a father who ends up with a phone call from his child’s school are transactions.
- Complementary Transaction
The contact that occurs in the middle of the person points to the ego states that are in harmony with each other, and the pronunciation that is answered in the outgoing pronunciation is in the desired form. For example, the mother asks her child: “Have you made your bed?” When he conveyed the question, the child said: “Yes, I collected it.” gives in return.
- Cross (Closed) Transaction
During communication, the message sent by the individual is not answered at the desired ego level. Mother to her child: “Have you made your bed?” to the question of his child: “My job is not to make beds! Its response in the form ” is a cross-transaction.
- latent transaction
Only one or both of the two communicating individuals act in two ego states. Since these transactions contain two different messages at the same time, since one of the messages may be in the social dimension while the other may be in the spiritual dimension, the so-called social message does not match the underlying (not explicitly stated) but (nonverbally transmitted) spiritual message.
For example, when a newly married couple cannot decide what to eat at a luxury restaurant for the first time, and consult the waiter, the waiter’s response by pointing to a valuable dish from the menu: “Our customers mostly prefer this dish”, in fact, “Choose this dish.” contains the notice.
How Does Transactional Analysis Work?
During our communication, this transaction determines whether the connection will continue as a result of the activation of the appropriate transaction, whichever selves is active while we are talking. For example, if you were able to pose a question with your adult self and get a “reasonable” response to the question, the connection continues in a healthy way. However, if the other person responds with a sarcastic or rude response, the “cross-transaction” occurs, and the contact ends.
According to TA, the skills of awareness (consciousness), spontaneity and sincerity required for autonomy need to be developed.
People; to be noticed, to be in a frame; Since he needs to make sense of his relationship with the person with whom he is connected, these needs must be satisfied for a healthy interest. Especially in emotional bonds, the connection is of high quality to the extent that it includes lust, compassion, trust, curiosity, love and attraction.
Assumptions on which TA is based:
- Individuals have the capacity to develop emotionally and complete their autonomy.
- Individuals have to make a choice in the situations they encounter.
- People decide for themselves what will happen in their life.
The Way Brands Follow
Brands that use this spiritual knowledge, while talking about the features of the works in the advertisements they design, act like adults and explain the properties of the works, then they move forward by establishing child-parent interest and giving notices with the theme of freedom and independence. The possibility of persuading increases when they use the language they want to address to which self-state of the department that is planned to be contacted. It is beneficial for them to appeal to the chocolate segment – child-, the bank branch – adult-.
I’m Ok You’re Ok
It is beneficial to evaluate one’s perceptions of oneself and others outside of their subjective costs.
I’m OK, You’re OK: In this situation, which is beneficial for the individual, if individuals behave in accordance with their life circumstances, they develop friendly relations that give confidence to other individuals, by solving the problems they encounter, and trusting themselves. Prefers compassionate, affirming, open and engaging communication.
I’m OK, You’re Not OK: It is a projective position, where the individual criticizes by trying to oppress other individuals while feeling wronged. He cannot tolerate misconceptions and tries to exert pressure.
I’m Not OK, You’re OK: It is an introjective life situation, and while they feel passive and powerless towards their surroundings, they experience a state of high helplessness and depression by showing escape behavior.
I’m not OK, you’re not OK: It is a completely unhealthy situation, and the individual shows rebellious and involuntary behaviors by not taking responsibility in their relationships. Exaggeration in eating, alcohol consumption, being a spectator to life, hopelessness, indifference and unhappiness are the most striking features.
Purpose of Transactional Analysis
Since “transactional analysis” is both a psychology and a theory of connection, its purpose is to realize the dynamics we brought from childhood, to separate the past from the present and to have a healthier mental structure. In any connection strategy, from the advertising department to personal interests and professional life, what counts will be whether we appeal to the real self.
Amidst the benefits;
- It supports the development of healthy ego identities by contributing to the emergence of a healthy society.
- It teaches ways to establish healthy communication.
- A language that makes the contacts used by supporting the individual characteristics of the individuals is preferred.
- It shows which life positions we are contacting.
- It helps us to avoid communication conflicts.
- It makes it easier to talk about the problems related to communication, the negative perspectives of individuals towards themselves, and the situations they are in.